Timeline

Teams around the world are racing to build the world's first functioning quantum computer. UNSW Australia leads the world in silicon-based architecture. This is the journey so far.



1998

Bruce Kane publishes the first concept for building a quantum computer in silicon. Link to abstract

2000

ARC Special Research Centre for Quantum Computing established and headquartered at UNSW. Teams take a dual-track approach to realise the Kane architecture — top down by ion implantation and bottom up by atomic manipulation.

2001

Ability to position individual atoms on a silicon surface demonstrated, using the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope to create an atomic-scale template. Link to abstract

2003-1

Single phosphorus (dopant) atom positioned into silicon with atomic precision. Link to abstract

2003-2

The ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum Computing is established. The new Centre is headquartered at UNSW.

2004

First device patterned by a scanning tunneling microscope: a 900 nm long, 90 nm-wide phosphorus doped wire in silicon. Result of encapsulating P atoms in silicon without them moving out of position and making electrical contact to the encapsulated device despite the fact that it can't be seen. Link to abstract

2005

Ability to implant a single-phosphorus atom in silicon using ion implantation is demonstrated. Link to abstract

2009

A complete all epitaxial transistor is demonstrated — researchers can watch the movement of individual electrons move through the device. Link to abstract

2010

A "single-shot electron reader" is developed — a critical step towards measuring a silicon qubit. Link to abstract

2011

The ARC Centre of Excellence for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology is established. The Centre is headquartered at UNSW.

2012-1

Researchers demonstrate they can read and write information using the spin of an electron, on a single phosphorus atom in a silicon chip. Link to abstract

2012-2

The world's first single-atom transistor is created, proving that matter can be controlled at the atomic scale. Link to abstract

2012-3

The world's tiniest wire, with the same capacity to conduct electricity as a traditional copper wire, is created. Link to abstract

2013-1-VID

Researchers demonstrate they can read and write information on the spin of the nucleus of a phosphorus atom in silicon. Link to abstract

2013-2-VID

World-first step towards a global quantum internet — the team uses optical and electrical systems to detect the quantum state of a single atom. Link to abstract

2014-1-VID

Phosphorus donors demonstrate the longest coherence time qubit in the solid state (more than 35 seconds). Link to abstract

First spin qubit based on industry-standard silicon CMOS devices demonstrated. Link to abstract

2014-2

First demonstration of spin transport across two precision-placed phosphorus dots. Link to abstract

2014-3

Spatially-resolving valley quantum interference of a donor in silicon is demonstrated. Link to abstract

2015-1-VID

First two-qubit logic gate in silicon is demonstrated, using industry-standard silicon CMOS devices.
Link to abstract

2015-3

Highest fidelity qubit initialisation is demonstrated—well above the threshold for error correction protocols. Link to abstract

2015-4-VID

Australian researchers publish a full-scale architecture for a silicon based quantum computer. Link to abstract

2016-1-VID

Researchers demonstrate that quantum code can be written using an electron and nuclear spin of a single donor. Link to abstract

2016-2

Researchers demonstrate that a small group of individual atoms placed precisely in silicon can act as a quantum simulator, mimicking nature – in this case, the weird quantum interactions of electrons in materials. Link to abstract

2016-3-VID

Australian team develops a world-first approach to precisely locating atoms in a silicon crystal, one which will help design more accurate quantum computing architectures. Link to abstract